In the small town(Lindsay, Okla.) where I grew up there was no bowling team at all for students. Varsity or otherwise and certainly no club. My suggestion would be to contact the school board for one and discuss this at an open meeting but you will most likely have to have other kids interested in it other than 1, 2, or 3 of you. Get your word out and keep it out. Originally I'm from Oklahoma where as DJ mentions it above that football is like a religion. Sadly it is that way in almost all cities...small, large, or metropolitan.
Since you are 17 and on your way to graduating HS and moving on to college....one thing the board may need to realize is that if the school does decide to recognize you then it might mean more scholarships for those in the future for students such as yourself. In this case you may end up being the "martyr" by your activism in getting recognition but if you don't continue to try and see it through....it certainly will not ever be recognized.
I'd also get in touch with collegiate coaches who may lend you a hand or even attend the meetings with you. There are always options so utilize anything and everything to see your accomplishments through. It will not be an easy journey and it will frustrate you to no end....but there is one thing I want to invoke in you.....one voice cannot change anything.....a multitude of voices can change everything. Find sponsosrs or whatever you need to do.....but if the school won't recognize and support you and you have to find outside sponsors to do it....then remind the school that whatever revenue you bring in to support your organization that they will certainly not reap the benefits that you bring in. Let them cut their own throats.
It takes balls to play this game.